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句型和短语啥子不同差异 句型和短语啥子区别

句型和短语啥子不同差异

英语句型:定语从句,宾语从句,同位语从句,状语从句等.还有一些固定句型:例如 过去完成时定义 过去完成时(past perfect)表示在过去某一时间或ACT之前已经发生或完成了的ACT或状态. 它表示句子中描述的ACT发生在“过去的过去”.[编辑本段]基本结构 主语+had+过去分词vpp.(done) ①肯定句:主语+had+过去分词. ②否定句:主语+had+not+过去分词. ③一般疑问句:Had+主语+过去分词? 肯定回答:Yes,主语+had. 否定回答:No,主语+had not . ④特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词或词组+一般疑问句(Had+主语+过去分词)?[编辑本段]基本用法 (1)表示在过去某一时刻或ACT以前完成了的ACT,也可以说过去的时间关于过去的ACT.即“过去的过去”.可以用by, before等介词短语或壹个时间状语从句来表示,也可以用壹个表示过去的ACT来表示,还也许通过上下文来表示. 例如: By nine o'clock last night, we had got 200 pictures from the spaceship. 到昨晚9点钟,大家已经收到200 张飞船发来的图片. (2)表示由过去的某一时刻最初,一直延续到过去另一时间的ACT或状态,常与for, since构成的时间状语连用. 例如: I had been at the bus stop for 20 minutes when a bus finally came. 当车来的时候,我在车站已等了20分钟. He said he had worked in that factory since 1949. 他说自从1949年以来他就在那家工厂工作. (3)叙述过去发生的事情,在已叙述了过去发生的事情后,反回来追述或补述以前发生的ACT时,常运用过去完成时. 例如: Mr. Smith died yesterday. He had been a good friend of mine. 史密斯先生昨天去世了.他以前是我的好友. I didn't know a thing about the verbs, for I had not studied my lesson. 我对动词一无所知,因为我没有好好学习功课. (4)在含有定语从句的主从复合句中,如果叙述的是过去的事,先发生的ACT常用过去完成时. 例如: I returned the book that I had borrowed. 我已归还了我借的书. She found the key that she had lost. 她丢失的钥匙找到了. (5)过去完成时常常用在told,said,knew,heard,thought等动词后的宾语从句(或间接引语)中,这时从句中的ACT发生在主句表示的过去的ACT之前. 例如: He said that he had known her well. 他说他很熟悉她. I thought I had sent the letter a week before. 我认为我一星期前就把信寄出去了. (6) 状语从句:在过去不同时间发生的两个ACT中,发生在前,用过去完成时;发生在后,用一般过去时. 如when,before,after,as soon as,till/until引导的 例如: When I woke up, it had already stopped raining. 我醒来时雨已停了. She didn't go to bed until she had finished her work. 她直到把工作做完之后才睡觉. 注意:如果两个ACT紧接着发生,则常常不用过去完成时,非常是在包含before与after的复合句中,因为 这 时从句的ACT与主句的ACT发生的先后顺序已经特别明确,这时可以用一般过去时代替过去完成时. 例如: After he arrived in England, Marx worked hard to improve his English. 马克思到达英格兰之后,卖力提升他的英语水平. (7)动词think, want, hope, mean, plan, intend等用过去完成时来表示过去未曾实现的想法,希望,打算或意图等. 例如: They had wanted to help but could not get there in time. 他们本来打算去帮忙,但没有及时赶到那里. We had hoped to be able to come and see you . 大家本来希望能来看看你. (8)过去完成时还可用在hardly…when…, no sooner…than…, It was the first (second, etc) time (that)…等固定句型中. 例如:Hardly had he begun to speak when the audience interrupted him. 他刚最初演讲,听众就打断了他. No sooner had he arrived than he went away again. 他刚到就又走了. It was the third time that he had been out of work that year. 这是他那一年第三次失业了. 时间状语 before,when,after,by+,until, once,had no sooner……than,yet,already等.[编辑本段]过去完成时-语法判定 1. 由时间状语来判定 一般说来,各种时态都有特定的时间状语.和过去完成时连用的时间状语有: ( 1 ) by + 过去的时间点.如: I had finished reading the novel by nine o'clock last night. ( 2 ) by the end of + 过去的时间点.如: We had learned over two thousand English words by the end of last term. ( 3 ) before + 过去的时间点.如: They had planted six hundred trees before last Wednesday. 2. 由“过去的过去”来判定. 过去完成时表示“过去的过去”,是指过去某一ACT之前已经发生或完成的ACT,即ACT有先后关系,ACT在前的用过去完成时,在后的用一般过去时.这种用法常出今年: ( 1 )宾语从句中 当宾语从句的主句为一般过去时,且从句的ACT先于主句的ACT时,从句要用过去完成时.在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句.如: She said that she had seen the film before. ( 2 )状语从句中 在时间、条件、原因、方法等状语从句中,主、从句的ACT发生有先后关系,ACT在前的,要用过去完成时,ACT在后的要用一般过去时.如: After he had finished his homework, he went to bed. 注意: before, after 引导的。